69. Mark Packard’s Value Learning Process: The Two Kinds of Knowledge Entrepreneurs Must Have

Mark Packard has a big insight about how entrepreneurs manage innovation. Producers don’t innovate, customers do. That may sound a little odd, but Mark’s Value Learning Process makes it clear.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Innovation is one of the keys to business success.

The world is changing at such a pace, and your customers’ preferences are changing so fast, that your business has to change at the same speed, or even faster. How to keep up is a part of the entrepreneurial challenge.

Mark Packard has a big insight about how entrepreneurs manage innovation.

Producers don’t innovate. Customers do. That may sound a little odd, but Mark’s Value Learning Process makes it clear. Customers are always looking for new value. They’re always dissatisfied, seeking to make things better for themselves. They know what’s wrong or disappointing or less than perfect with their current experience. And they’re always looking for new solutions, better ways to do things, improved experiences. If you know how to interpret their behavior and their dissatisfactions, they’ll tell you what to do.

Then, as a producer, you need to figure out how to do what the customer wants.

Two kinds of knowledge and two kinds of thinking are essential.

Entrepreneurs need to know about what customers want. Then they need the know-how to deliver the solution. Mark calls these two kinds of knowledge: Needs Knowledge and Technical Knowledge. They require two different mindsets.

Needs Knowledge and Technical Knowledge

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Mindset 1: Think like a customer.

If customers are the ones who innovate, entrepreneurs must be able to think like customers. Really think like them. Be dissatisfied. Demand better. We call the required entrepreneurial skillset “empathy”. It’s sentiment mirroring – your brain and sensory system has to be able to mirror those of the customer. You must feel the same feelings they do. It can be done. Practice it.

A big part of the economy is consumers innovating for themselves. Think like they do. Make a list of what’s most important to you. These are innovation opportunities that you know more about than anyone else. Think about how you’d like to improve your experiences in these areas. What features can you not do without? Why? Think like a customer. Start with your own problem in order to immerse yourself in the problems others want to solve.

Mindset 2: Think like a producer.

You love your customers. You want to please them. Develop the technical knowledge to do so. This doesn’t necessarily mean high technology. If you want them, for example, to enjoy a new kind of convenience grocery store with an organic food emphasis and lots of innovative food-to-go options, you need to know store operations, supply chain logistics, inventory management, and flexible / adaptive hiring practices. You need mastery of technical knowledge.

And while you don’t need to be a programmer, you do need knowledge of the latest technologies from a producer’s viewpoint: how do these technologies help you to deliver a better, faster, lower cost customer experience. Geeking out on these technologies is a good idea for producers.

Knowledge Compounding.

Many innovative solutions come from combining two existing pieces of knowledge. Combining needs knowledge and technical knowledge can produce a new solution to the market. Mark also talks about combining active knowledge — what we know about that’s prominent in our mind — with semi-active knowledge — what we know about that we don’t use every day or is stored away deeper in our memory that’s hidden by our recency bias.

These and other knowledge combinations can generate big ideas. In fact, Curt Carlson in episode #37 told us that combining knowledge is not just additive, it’s multiplicative. Knowledge compounds when we combine it, leading to faster innovative progress. Utilizing Mark Packard’s knowledge combination techniques is the way to get there.

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65. David Bienstock on the Business of Politics

When we talk about entrepreneurial alertness to opportunity, it can sound pretty vague. What exactly does that mean? How is alertness translated into profitable action?

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

This week’s guest, David Bienstock, provided us with a very precise example. He had just started his media buying services business when a phone call came in. Do you provide service in the category of political advertising? David’s answer was yes. There was no reason for it to be otherwise because there was no information at the time that would indicate any differences between media buying services in the political advertising category compared to the commercial advertising category.

He was able to transfer existing knowledge from his expertise in media buying and placement, and also develop more and more new knowledge. He thereby identified more and more ways in which political advertising was specialized — factors of timing, competitiveness, geography, pricing, regulation, and many more. David built his own island of specialization and became the foremost expert in a burgeoning field.

What can we learn from following David’s entrepreneurial journey?

David Bienstock's Entrepreneurial Journey

1) The alertness we talk about that entrepreneurs display to opportunities can be triggered by the smallest piece of data. For David, it was one phone call. His instantaneously positive and open response led to a long and successful journey.

2) Wherever there is business expenditure there is an opportunity for an entrepreneurial business service. The business we discussed in episode #65 is campaigning — political, public affairs, ballot measures. How much is spent on campaigns? A lot. There’s the opportunity.

3) The best entrepreneurial businesses are often the ones that clients put you into. David’s inbound phone call was a new client stating an unmet need. That’s all the invitation the alert entrepreneur requires.

4) Opportunities, once seized, expand. David has expanded his original business by adding many related services for current clients to utilize, including multi-channel media, market research and analytics. In addition, he has added multiple new businesses in related spaces. He’s been creative, he’s taken action, he’s been constantly looking for new opportunities that are complementary to the first one that he spotted. However small the start, the next steps will quickly become apparent to the entrepreneur who is not only alert to opportunity but also to expansion and growth.

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64. Per Bylund: Avoid The Errors of UNtrepreneurship.

Per Bylund warns us that there is some entrepreneurial advice and some proposed business models that are misleading. They amount to what he calls UNtrepreneurship – a bad business direction to take. He defines the standard of the Austrian entrepreneurial business model and highlights the business risks that lurk on some other pathways in Economics For Entrepreneurs podcast #64.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Follow the guidance of the Austrian Business Model.

The entrepreneurial business model is built on a set of important economic principles. Wandering away from the entrepreneurial pathway can lead to errors that Per Bylund christened UNtrepreneurship.

Focus on serving consumers and customers.

The purpose of a business is to create and keep a customer. It’s a demanding task, because customer needs are continuously evolving and changing, and competing entrepreneurs are vying for their dollars. It is critical to maintain intense focus on service to customers.

There is a lot of distracting entrepreneurial advice. You might encounter instructions to “identify and exploit market gaps” or to “seize opportunities”, for example. But there are no such things as gaps to fill or opportunities to grab. The language makes it sound like these are objective phenomena, unmasked by analytics. They’re not. The right strategic platform for entrepreneurs is to focus on serving customers by identifying their preferences and meeting them.

Every hour you spend, every strategic thought you develop, should be focused on the customer.

Productivity lies in returns on customer satisfaction.

You’ll hear a lot of talk of generating returns, especially on funds invested by lenders or VC’s. These returns are emergent outcomes of other activities. Even profit is an indirect outcome more than it is a goal.

Ludwig von Mises wrote in Human Action that the task of the entrepreneur is to use capital “to the best possible satisfaction of consumers”. Anything else “hurts people’s well-being”. Customer sovereignty, in the language of economics, means that the customer decides, by buying or not buying, what will be the return to the entrepreneur on their investments of time, effort and money. Productivity results from the most efficient assembly and combination of resources to produce customer satisfaction.

Sometimes, business literature and business practice can deviate from this standard. Often, for example, the pursuit of “scaling” – making a firm big, in numbers of employees, say, or number of transactions, as fast as possible – can divert resources from serving customers to serving the needs of infrastructure growth and bureaucracy. Customer satisfaction should be the only focus.

Understand subjective value.

The economic concept of value is challenging to master for entrepreneurs. Value is an experience in the customer’s mind. We’ve also identified that it’s a process – a learning process customers initiate and actively conduct to make a decision as to whether an offering has potential value (“I might like it”), relative value (“I think I might feel better about buying X versus Y”), exchange value (“I am willing to pay Z dollars at this point in time to acquire X”), experience value (“my satisfaction was more / less / the same as I expected”) and assessed value (“looking back on it, my value experience was worthwhile and worth repeating unless something with more potential value is offered to me”). All through this cycle, the customer is active in the marketplace, learning about alternative offers, changing their consumption preferences, interacting with other people with different experiences and preferences that might be influential, receiving advertising messages, and generally rearranging their personal value recipe.

It’s a challenge to understand and a challenge to keep up. An entrepreneur’s understanding of subjective value is a critical business success component. Importantly, the business school concept of “creating value” can be unhelpful. Value is created by the customer. The role of the entrepreneur is to understand how to fit in to the customer’s life and contribute to it, making possible (“facilitating”) the mental experience we call value.

View pricing as a discovery process, not as an expression of market power.

Another challenge of the economic way of thinking to conventional business writing is the understanding of prices. Prices are emergent market signals, ultimately determined by the consumer’s willingness to pay. Prices can’t be “set” by the entrepreneur. There is no “pricing power”. Margins can not be calculated by determining the price you want to sell at and then subtracting the costs you have imposed on yourself.

Entrepreneurs discover prices – the market reveals them. Attempts to use pricing as leverage to grow market share irrespective of costs and profits are doomed to failure if it is later discovered that customers become conditioned to the artificially low prices and resist returning to a higher price.

Follow the entrepreneurial ethic.

Per Bylund has emphasized that there is an entrepreneurial ethic that applies. Entrepreneurship is the service of meeting customer needs. Profit emerges as a result of successfully accomplishing this task. Profit is necessary to maintain the service, but it’s not necessarily the primary goal. In some ways, entrepreneurship is a calling. There are social and emotional benefits for taking on the role of the entrepreneur – we can classify them as psychic profit. There is purpose and meaning in the entrepreneurial life.

This should not be confused with the misguided economics of so-called social entrepreneurship or impact entrepreneurship: attempting to rearrange and redistribute resources in society through the active application of the entrepreneur’s personal preferences. Only the customer’s preferences in the marketplace can direct the best allocation of resources. The entrepreneurial ethic is to follow and serve.

Our Free E4E Knowledge Graphic summarizes these precepts – keep it on your device for reference.

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59. Sean Ring: What Successful Entrepreneurs Understand About Iteration

Hunter Hastings asks Sean Ring, Finlingo Co-founder and CEO, for his number one secret for entrepreneurial success. His answer: Iteration.

Sean offers additional insights, as we’ll see below, but the power of iteration is his number one: doing things over and over, with a view to improving. Always learning, always changing, never getting tired of improving and tinkering, whether it’s with your life path, your self-knowledge, your skills, your code base or your business. You can never predict the future, but you can always monitor your felt uneasiness and take action to relieve it by doing better.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Sean navigated his lifepath through specialized areas of the financial services industry and through multiple locations around the globe, accumulating knowledge and insight at every step along the way.

Armed with degrees in finance, Sean found his way into banking, and into derivatives accounting with Lehman Brothers. Then to the “back office” (operations) at Credit Suisse, then the front office, then client management. It was a winding path, finding out what he was good at, where he needed to improve, and what he liked and disliked about corporate life. He worked in New York City and London got a taste of international travel and living that he enjoyed.

Blank Map of Sean's Iterations

Click to see the blank map filled in with Sean’s actual iterations.

He took a pause: time off and a self-assessment to organize his individual resources.

The corporate treadmill can be mesmerizing. Sean took a year off to take his bearings, including a measurement of his personality traits using the OCEAN model, as well as subjectively self-assessing his strengths and areas for improvement.

He began to focus on organization — both the entrepreneurial function and the personal skill. Not only was organization a way to self-improve, it was a step on the pathway to entrepreneurship, the role that Joe Salerno describes, from Mises, as supervising and organizing the various elements of productive property into a coherent structure of means, i.e. the firm.

He identified financial training as his professional field.

Sean found he was excellent in front of the class. His communications abilities enabled him to express complex topics so that young trainees would understand and absorb them. His hard work ensured no gaps or weaknesses in his training materials. His gregariousness helped him to learn from other experts. He found himself highly motivated by helping young people embark upon the path as he had followed, but armed by Sean with more knowledge.

At the same time, Sean himself never stopped accumulating certifications, qualification and badges.

Skills need continuous refreshment. In the financial services industry, there are complex technical issues to master, from financial instruments to trading techniques to compliance to ethics. Sean dedicated himself to accumulating a wide range of certifications, both to confirm his own levels of technical excellence in his field, and to communicate to others his rigorous pursuit of knowledge. He is a big believer in testing and its importance in maintaining quality and integrity in service industries like finance where technical complexity sometimes doesn’t combine well with transparent and high-trust relationship practices — what Sean calls the combination of hard skills and soft skills.

And he found a business partner with complementary skills and a shared mindset.

Between them, Sean and his business partner Andy Duncan combine marketing / sales / communications / finance expertise with coding, A.I., and cognitive psychology. They share founders’ ambitions, work together well, and both enjoy Austrian Economics. Entrepreneurial initiatives are more likely to succeed when two or more partners can combine relevant skills and experience in a collaborative relationship.

All these steps bring Sean to a logical milestone on his life path: co-founder and CEO of a tech start-up employing advanced technology to achieve new levels of testing integrity to his industry.

Finlingo employs AI and advanced coding to write exam questions for technically complex financial certifications and to infinitely replicate those questions, so that no two candidates get the same questions, no questions can be memorized, and the exams can’t be stolen or hacked. Instructors and institutions enjoy a write-once-and-relax experience in composing questions and setting exams, a significant relief of uneasiness.

Sean shares his 5 key learnings for a successful entrepreneur’s journey.

  1. Iteration: Entrepreneurs learn that they’re wrong every day. Every fork can be re-taken. Every initiative can be improved. Every left turn can be re-thought as a right turn. Keep iterating.
  2. Humility: The mindset for iteration is humility – entrepreneurs know that they don’t know a lot, that every decision is based on imperfect knowledge, and every judgement is subject to uncertainty.
  3. Self-awareness: Deal with your own internal pressure; manage your own expectations – success does not necessarily come quickly and you don’t necessarily advance in a straight line at a constant pace.
  4. Lean cost discipline: Keep costs low, and don’t bankrupt yourself by spending too much too soon. Afford yourself the opportunity to make the mistakes you need to make.
  5. Family: Keep your spouse or partner supportive; communicate well.

Sean’s Principles of Austrian Economics

What are the principles of economics most useful for business success?

  1. Subjective value: Entrepreneurs can easily get wrapped up in their own (objective) beliefs about the importance and market impact of their product or service. The only thing that matters is how customers feel about it. Truly understanding subjective value and thinking and feeling like the customer is a key to success. Sean asks: what is the wish list inside the customer’s mind at any one given moment and where does your service stand on that list. Top of the list may be the pressing need to pick the kids up from school when you are trying to sell an annuity or insurance policy. Be aware, and empathetic.
  2. Customer sovereignty: “The market always asserts itself”, in Sean’s phrasing. It tells you what it wants. The market is the real boss. Listen to the market feedback and interpret it intelligently. The market may want features that you think are unimportant. The feedback may come to you as “not easy to use” when the right interpretation is “build me a better dashboard”.
  3. Unique assembly of assets: Entrepreneurial success is often a synthesis rather than the invention of a new-to-the-world idea. If a customer needs both A and B, and you can provide a service that integrates A with B, that might be enough to create a new business. No need to invent the wheel.
  4. Iterate, iterate, iterate.

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58. John Cox: Facilitating Value Through Skilled Orchestration

There’s a skill that can turn any individual entrepreneur or small business into a global powerhouse exhibiting the highest quality service levels to the most demanding customer base. That skill is orchestration. Listen to a master orchestrator, John Cox, share important lessons from his entrepreneurial journey on this week’s E4E Podcast.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Entrepreneurs make orchestration a value-producing service.

Entrepreneurs don’t necessarily need to own the capital and resources required to deliver value. What they do is organize capital in a new way to facilitate a new value experience for customers. They orchestrate capital, resources, people, skills and technologies. Their orchestration creates a unique combination of resources, uniquely applied for a highly valued customer experience.

First, the entrepreneur imagines the customer’s future experience and how they will value it.

Entrepreneurs create their own opportunities by imagining a future experience that customers will find valuable. John Cox, a tax accountant and lawyer, discovered in his client interactions that his customers had to deal with many different service providers when managing their own finances — investment advisors for stocks and bonds, investment funds for non-public investments, tax preparers, tax lawyers, contract lawyers, accountants, estate planners, and many more.

There were inefficiencies and frictions in these arrangements — time and money for the client to talk to the lawyer and accountant separately, and then for the lawyer to talk to the accountant before agreeing on a unified solution for the client. John imagined a future where there was a single point of contact with a better client experience at a faster speed and a lower cost.

Second, the entrepreneur orchestrates top providers in each field to efficiently channel their services through them as a single client contact point.

A single point of contact dedicated to the client’s needs can provide a singularly valuable benefit — quality, speed, efficiency, low cost and high trust all in one place. John’s deal with the provider orchestra was to bring customers, providing the players with a place to demonstrate their unique skills and contribution to the integrated offering, as well as a revenue stream at lower cost (no sales costs and lower overhead).

Relationship capital results in the customer getting an integrated, high-quality plan and good outcomes with an interface of both trust and convenience.

John brought relationship capital to the client solution in two ways. His clients knew him as a tax accountant and lawyer of high capability and trustworthiness, so that when he added new outside services to his offering, there were grounds for extending their trust. Second, he brought relationships with the outside service providers that the client did not have to develop and maintain themselves.

Better outcomes, lower cost and established trust — a valuable client experience.

Technology brings higher levels of integration to the orchestra.

In the earliest days of his orchestration of services, John was a leading edge user of technology. At the beginning, it was the new Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) mini-computers and peripherals, of which John’s firm was one of the earliest users. Later, he networked many lawyers together on an Apple network — again, as one of the earliest such users. Today it’s the internet that provides the technical backbone for orchestration. Orchestrators are adept at employing the latest technology for managing distributed resources.

Customer value is enhanced even further when the orchestrator has skin in the game.

When John expanded his orchestrated offering to include private investments in apartment buildings he purchased, his client relationships were strengthened further by the “skin in the game” effect. Clients believe that when a provider’s own capital is at risk as well as theirs, there is an even greater focus on shared value.

Skin in the game is not mandatory for orchestrators, but it can be relationship-reinforcing in appropriate cases.

Entrepreneurs who excel at orchestration are systems thinkers.

Orchestrators assemble a system of services to deliver a unified client experience. Systems thinking requires understanding of what the client wants from the system (safe asset value growth, for example), how they want to interact with the system (one point of contact, unified reports, etc.) as well as which external services to include in the orchestration and how to be the conductor who gets them all working together in harmony.

In addition to assembling the orchestra, the orchestrator must be skilled in higher-level ecosystem thinking about the larger systems into which the orchestra must fit: prevailing financial systems, compliance systems, regulatory and reporting systems and so on.

Learn more about John’s Californians for Honest and Non-Partisan Government Effectiveness:

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57. Per Bylund on Coronapreneurs: How Austrian Entrepreneurs Manage An Exogenous Shock To The System

The coronavirus panic is an exogenous shock to the economic system. For entrepreneurs, the pathway to dealing with its consequences starts with systems thinking.

What’s the ecosystem in which you operate? How does your business fit in? How can you systematically adapt to the changes going on upstream, downstream and laterally? How can you contribute to system resilience? How can you tap your resources of adaptability, agility, and imagination? We talk with expert systems thinker Per Bylund on E4EPod.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Two methods of applying reason to the analysis of changing circumstances can be particularly helpful during cases of external, or exogenous, economic shock, such as the current coronavirus panic.

The first is thinking in terms of economic output. The second is systems thinking.

Applying these methods can help Austrian entrepreneurs to make sound decisions amidst the high-speed rate of change of economic conditions.

Coronapreneurship Cover Photo

1) Identify the ecosystem in which you operate and analyze expected changes in output. If you operate in the health care ecosystem, output can be expected to rise. More hospital beds in use, more cleaning services utilized, more deliveries to hospitals, additional workers hired. If you operate in the food and beverage ecosystem, output may stay the same but the location of consumption may shift, for example from bars and restaurants and company cafeterias to homes. If you work in the physical mobility ecosystem of cars, buses and planes, output can be expected to decline. In the digital mobility ecosystem of Slack and Zoom and webinars, it can be expected to increase.

Try to approximate the output potential of your ecosystem over the next few weeks.

2) Next, review the conditions in your own micro-system of suppliers, customers and support services (such as banks). Dr. Bylund advises us first to look upstream to suppliers and vendors. The key economic tools here are communication and information. They will not know your business needs in these changed circumstances unless you reach out to tell them. Call them on the phone, talk person-to-person, let them know what you expect and what you need. You’ll be reducing uncertainty for them and you’ll be strengthening your relationship and building trust, with beneficial long term consequences.

If supply might be interrupted, you will benefit from contingency planning which looks at all possible scenarios, which is a characteristic of the Austrian view of uncertainty. Dr. Bylund suggests we look at a worst-case scenario, a best-case scenario and one in the middle. This will narrow your uncertainty and the range of possible actions and make them more manageable.

3) Next, look downstream to customers and consumers. If you are a B2B entrepreneur, your customers are in the same position as you relative to your upstream suppliers. Talk to them, build relationships and find out their needs. How can you facilitate new value for them? Offer assistance. If you are able to help them with their cash flow or their inventory management or other aspects of their business, it’s an opportunity for long term business building. Extended terms, discounts and bonuses, if you can extend them, have the potential to pay back in the long term via loyalty and extended relationships.

For B2C businesses, the same mindset applies: how can you facilitate new value experiences under changed circumstances. Some of the same tools might apply, such as extended terms, discounts and savings. Or the answer might lie in new distribution methods, such as home delivery or curbside pick-up outside restaurants. Always keep the value process in mind: consumers still want value from you, but the way they experience that value may change.

Of course, in both cases, you must carefully manage your own cash flow, and this is a critical metric under these circumstances. Weak cash flows are the biggest small business killer.

4) Therefore, it also makes sense to look laterally across your ecosystem to collaborators and enablers like banks. Be clear with them what your requirements are, and make sure they communicate clearly to you what new facilities they are able to extend, both of their own volition and in response to new legislation coming from the Federal government. We Austrians are skeptical about government intervention in the economy at any time. However, it behooves all business owners and manages to be up-to-date in their knowledge of available assistance.

Read Dr. Bylund’s article on this subject here.

And download our knowledge graphic as a guide to your system thinking here.

Let us have your comments, suggestions and ideas on our Mises For Business LinkedIn page here.

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