A podcast based on the winning principle that entrepreneurs need only know the laws of economics plus the minds of customers. After that, apply your imagination.

35. Chris Wilton’s Recipe for Success

Is there a recipe for entrepreneurial success? Chris Wilton has established a successful and growing catering business, and the recipe he developed has some ingredients that every entrepreneur can utilize.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Economists (e.g. Murray Rothbard in Man Economy and State) often talk about the recipe that entrepreneurs develop for business growth and success. They don’t quite mean it literally — a fixed proportion of ingredients combined in the same way and the same sequence every time for the same result — but the analogy is nevertheless useful. Recipes are plans entrepreneurs utilize to advance from one step to the next in pursuing their goals.

A recipe is intellectual property — software if you will. Sometimes it’s opensource, sometimes it’s proprietary. When a chef utilizes a recipe, even one that is well known, both the chef and the customer anticipate something unique: Mary makes the best chocolate cake! Lots of people make chocolate cake, and they might use the same ingredients as Mary, but, in the subjective view of a customer, no one’s result is as good as Mary’s.

To get a result, Mary has to combine hardware with the software, and perhaps there is an edge there. We might call that the capital structure that is perfectly tuned to Mary’s purpose and matches her skills. Perhaps it’s even possible to assemble superior ingredients — a special and better kind of chocolate for example.

Mary might also need collaborators. She certainly needs customers to subjectively evaluate her cake.

We’ve probably tortured the analogy enough at this point. But hopefully, we got you thinking about the role of the entrepreneur in assembling resources in order to produce something that the customer values.

In this week’s podcast, Chris Wilton of Wilton’s Catering gave us his recipe for a successful and growing business. We’ve captured it in the accompanying PDF, linked below.

Chris Wilton Recipe for Entrepreneurial Success

Click the image for the full PDF

Here are some of the headlines:

Start with self-assessment: The one universal attribute of entrepreneurship that everyone seems to agree on is: it’s hard. It requires creativity but also discipline, determination and grit. It’s important to have examined your own disposition before you embark on the entrepreneur’s journey. Passion and drive are mandatory. (There’s a self-assessment tool, and a journey map.)

Identify a market and a customer: Chris Wilton knew his industry, and worked hard to pick the right beachhead customer. The beachhead customer is the first adopter who will be your customer-partner in getting your business off to a good start. Chris chose a nearby university with a highly developed and diverse set of catering needs, where he could develop his unique style of food and service.

Plan, plan, plan: Prior to launch, Chris spent months developing a detailed plan. Working from the customer (what are their needs — identified by multiple, frequent, in-depth customer conversations) backward through on-site service and set-up, delivery, capital equipment, real estate, raw material procurement, recipes, hiring and training and operating manuals. Chris’s time allocation and effort in planning was intensive. And it paid off.

Develop a customer experience, not just a service: Chris is totally focused on delivering a delightful customer experience, which entails a lot of empathic listening to the customer to understand what they expect, and then disciplined and detailed execution at every event and every meal, including the customer experience orientation and training of staff. After the event, always ask and listen for customer reactions. Was the experience good? How could it be better?

Innovate, innovate, innovate: You evaluate so that you can innovate. Innovation is continuous improvement — always looking for something new and better that will create new value for customers. A new or improved recipe, better preparation methods, improved staff training — it’s all innovation when it’s done to elevate the customer experience. One of Chris’s technique’s is sampling events where he can try new things, give away his food for free, and get feedback that he can use to perfect the innovation.

What’s the end-result? For Chris, it’s happiness. He loves and enjoys what he is doing, and he brings happiness to customers, to the attendees at customer events, and to his employees. That’s the great fulfillment of entrepreneurship.


PDF icon Download Chris Wilton’s Recipe for Entrepreneurial Success PDF (141 KB)


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34. Peter Klein on Pricing

Pricing is fundamental to business success – to generating transactions, to cash flow and to profitable operations. There’s a lot of uncertainty for entrepreneurs in the pricing process, and economics is a good source of clarity. In fact, Peter Klein tells us that economics used to be called price theory, recognizing this fundamental role of pricing in economic exchanges.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Austrian economics offers a special way of thinking about pricing that is helpful for entrepreneurs. Here is a 12-point list of pricing fundamentals.

The Process of Pricing Discovery

Click to download the full PDF.

1. Consumers set prices. This insight establishes the right entrepreneurial mindset: the entrepreneur can’t control pricing and shouldn’t try to. It only leads to  frustration. Act on the basis of the consumer as the determiner of market prices.

2. Consumers don’t set or negotiate the price in every transaction. They are the determiners in the medium and long term. If sufficient numbers of them don’t feel they experience value at the price they’re asked to pay, they won’t buy and the entrepreneur will not be able to generate the revenue that’s called for in their business model. They’ll have to change their price, or their offering or their valued proposition.

3. A price holds only for one transaction. Just because it was the right price to get one consumer to transact at one moment in time and one context, does not mean it will hold for the future. Just because it is the sticker price or asking price does not mean the consumer has no alternative but to pay it.

4. That’s why Austrian Economics sees pricing as a dynamic and creative discovery process. The entrepreneur is charged with discovering the price the consumer is willing to pay now, in the future, in different circumstances and different contexts.

5. Price discovery goes further – to the design of specific packages of product / service and experiences. What will the consumer pay for the product now, with no waiting? What will they pay for same-day delivery? What will they pay for the product / service in a special physical location – is a newly-released movie in a luxury theater valued more than a 3-month old movie on a streaming service? Is a coffee in a cafe where the consumer can sit for a while more valued than a take-away cup?

6. The creativity and dynamism of pricing extends to promotions and discounts, including coupons, loyalty bonuses and time-based offers (10% off until midnight!)

7. The key to getting this creative and dynamic discovery process right is a deep knowledge of the consumer and their individual preferences. Senior discounts might be effective when they’re offered at a time of day that works for the retired seniors and not for working people. Coupon offers are effective for people with the time and inclination to collect and clip them, but wasted on consumers who feel too busy for such efforts. The smart entrepreneur exercises price segmentation.

8. The same principles apply to B2B pricing, although it might not be apparent in the entrepreneur’s subjective experience. The entrepreneur might feel that a retailer or wholesaler or customer to whom he or she is selling makes a take-it-or-leave-it offer on the price they are willing to pay. But the creative dynamism of discovery applies – the entrepreneur experiments with different packages of service levels, contract duration and other variables to find the right value combination that works best for both parties.

9. Once prices are discovered, the entrepreneur assembles resources to facilitate a profit at the prevailing price. This process is fundamental to Austrian price theory, yet the opposite of the typical business school scenario of cost-plus pricing. Business schools often get things backwards.

10. Entrepreneurs discover many ways to manage costs in the supply chain to meet the price the market dictates. One we talked about was channel management. For example, in the burgeoning Direct To Consumer (DTC) business model, entrepreneurs have eliminated the costs of doing business with physical wholesalers and brick-and-mortar retailers. Often the consumer is willing to pay an unchanged price. Alternatively, the entrepreneur can offer greater value via a lower price, as is the case with Warby Parker in the eyeglasses business, as well as many other innovative DTC brands.

11. The key to this process is simply to treat what accounting defines as “costs” as prices that are upstream from the entrepreneur. All prices can be discovered, negotiated or re-channeled. It may not seem that way to the entrepreneur who is buying from a seller with asymmetric negotiating power. But the dynamism, creativity and innovation of the price discovery process is always available and always on the entrepreneur’s side. The only prices we know are historical. All prices in the future are to be discovered and creatively negotiated.

12. Sometimes the creative solution is for buyers to organize themselves in a way that brings new negotiating power. Peter Klein used open source software as an example – users who are uncomfortable with the sticker prices of Microsoft or Oracle create an alternative service with an alternative price.

In summary

A price is the outcome of a single transaction – it does not necessarily hold for future transactions.

Prices are determined by the consumer – in the medium to long term.

Ultimately, the consumer also determines prices further up the value chain because all intermediate prices must contribute towards a cost-of-goods that is less than the price the consumer is willing to pay.

Entrepreneurs take control when they consider pricing as a dynamic, creative discovery process. Creativity spans pricing segmentation (different prices for different customers on different occasions in different contexts), pricing objectives (one transaction, multiple transactions, long term loyalty, etc) and product-service-price repackaging.

In all cases, deep knowledge and understanding of customers and vendors yields the understanding that informs effective creativity and discovery, and experimentation yields new knowledge.


PDF icon Download The Process of Pricing Discovery PDF (141 KB)


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33. Isabel Aneyba: Listening From the Heart and the Techniques of Empathy

Per Bylund teaches us to explore the only two fields that matter for entrepreneurial success: understanding the laws of economics and understanding the mind of the customer. Isabel Aneyba is an expert in the techniques of empathic diagnosis that yield the understanding of the customer’s mind, and she shares these techniques — and her success in starting and growing a customer research company — on the Economics For Entrepreneurs podcast.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Listening to customers is a planned activity. Yes, we suggest regular, frequent, conversational interaction with customers. But not without a calculated purpose. You need to know in advance what you will do with the information — what decisions will you make that you can’t make now. This enables you to define the expected value of the information, and how much of your scarce resources of time and money to allocate to gathering and processing it. If you don’t know the purpose and estimated value of the research, don’t conduct it.

5 Steps To Help You Listen With Your Heart Graphic

Click the image to download the full 5-step PDF

Conduct conversations with customers at least every week. Isabel includes conversations in the customers’ homes or offices, conversations in your offices, face-to-face (including digital face-to-face using webcams). To make emotional connections, we look into each others’ eyes. Certainly, these conversations can be integrated with findings from other customer data sources, but they can’t be replaced.

Exercise your passion for listening; don’t focus on asking questions. The style of conversational research is the opposite of interrogation. Don’t work too hard on composing a list of questions, and sticking to your list. Once the conversation starts, let it flow. Focus on what the customer is thinking and feeling, not on facts. Use non-verbal cues to do so (Isabel tells us how during the podcast). Employ gentle probes (“Tell me more about that”) rather than direct questions. Let the customer do the talking and make it comfortable and easy for them. Good researchers, and all entrepreneurs, have a passion for listening.

Storytelling is the great revealer. Rather than ask a structured set of questions about, for example, the stages of a customer journey, it’s better to get the customer to tell a story, in their own words. Invite them to start at the beginning and continue to the end, without interruption. For example, the story of a visit to the doctor might begin with feeling symptoms and end with the doctor’s prescription. The customer will tell you everything that went on in between, from the drive to the office to the time in the waiting room to the doctor’s demeanor. Let them tell the story uninterrupted. You can loop back later into internal details.

Try other exercises besides asking questions. In some cases, Isabel favors the exercise of having a customer make a collage out of photos, magazine pages and other materials. The choices in the collage can revel preferences, and the customer is naturally open to explaining why they made the choices and what the collage and its elements means to them.

Listen with the heart to uncover hidden truths. Isabel explains how:

  • Open the conversation with an “emotional handshake”. Find a conversational path (which might not concern your business question) for the customer to express emotion. “What do you love to do?”
  • Listen for the customer’s emotional drivers — expressions like “I feel” or “I enjoy” — when they talk about a behavior or choice or a functional benefit. These expressions reveal emotions, and you can gently probe whether these emotions represent the subjective reason why customers behave as they do.
  • Interpretation is required — the customer won’t tell you that they take action X because of emotional driver Y. You have to make the connection. Then gently probe to see if you can find confirmation.

Apply the learning to design a better customer experience. Remember that customer research has a purpose. Your purpose in business is to create and keep a customer. Customers purchase your good and services for the experience they anticipate. By listening for their emotional drivers, you’ll identify gaps in the current experience — examples of customer unease. Use the information you gather to eliminate the gaps, and relieve the unease.

Compute the return on information. How much does the information gathering cost? How much value will you able to facilitate for the customer by designing an experience they feel better about?

Free Downloads & Additional Resources

“5 Steps To Help You Listen With Your Heart” (PDF): Click to Download

Isabel Aneyba’s company, COMARKA Consulting & Marketing Research

“Qual Method Aims to Unite Clients, Respondents in Co-creation”

“Let’s Work Together: The Consumer Co-Creation Camp”

32. James Beardsley: Seeing the Business World More Clearly

James Beardsley owns and runs a law practice. He decided from the outset that he would run it like a business — not all lawyers do — and, once he had discovered Austrian Economics, he saw more clearly how to succeed in reaching his goal.

Hunter Hastings and James discuss the principles of Austrian Economics that James puts to work.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Austrian Economics - A New Lens PDF snippet

Click to download the full PDF

Self-assessment: The entrepreneur is an individual with a role to play in society — someone who breaks new economic ground as a business owner, leader, team member, or contributor. That’s why we say that the entrepreneurial journey starts with self-assessment. James Beardsley’s was that he wanted to be a different kind of lawyer — one who ran a business rather than just a professional practice. That’s a commitment to approach, method and lifelong learning — a commitment he has maintained for many years.

Find applicable models: James sought models and principles for successful businesses of all kinds. Entrepreneurs break new ground, but before they do, there is no reason to ignore the empirical and historical data that can provide a foundation on which to build a new approach.

Read the books that can help you establish core principles: James was reading business and investment texts, and discovered Austrian Economics, which he felt covered the same topics with better logic and greater clarity. Austrian logic — breaking issues and challenges down to their simplest and most basic levels, establishing understanding at that level, and then building up from there — helped him immensely. He did not become an expert on economics, but identified and applied the core principles.

Identify the customer and their problem-to-solve with precision: James’s chosen target customer is very precise: people who experienced injury in a car accident. This precision yields certainty in the process of developing services for the customer.

Think from the perspective of the customer: Having identified the customer, think like they think. Accident victims are jarred; their lives have been changed dramatically; they are experiencing emotional turmoil; they don’t know how the legal process works; they may be angry or scared. Trying to think the way they think, and accepting their need, can lead to providing the compassionate help they are seeking.

Know their personal value scales: Every individual has their own value scale, and what is most important to one customer is not the same as what is most important to another. James’s firm seeks to understand each individual client’s personal value scale and to respond appropriately.

The customer creates value: At E4E, we try to stress that value is subjective and therefore created by the customer; the entrepreneur is a facilitator. James’s process is a striking example: accept the customer’s perspective, identify and adjust to their personal value scale, and let them determine the kind of service they prefer.

Empathy is the most important entrepreneurial skill: Throughout our conversation, James stressed the central role of empathy as the skill that he and his team employ to enable them to think from the customer’s perspective, identify their values, and to provide them with the reassurance they need in a difficult period in their life. The empathic process builds trust and long-term relationships.

Empathic diagnosis is the specific application of empathy: James stresses listening, trying to understand how the customer is feeling, understanding that perhaps they do not know how to react and therefore may not be able to communicate clearly, or may do so through a veil of denial or anger or frustration.

Hire people with the right disposition for the empathic process: Assembling the best set of entrepreneurial resources includes hiring the right people. Some people — but not all — can be trained to serve the customer with empathy. Provide them with a process and system to guide them, but recognize that not everyone will prove themselves at the task, and make a change as soon as the need for one is indicated. It’s critical for the health of your business.

Marketing is a fundamental tool for business success: Many entrepreneurs don’t leave enough resources for marketing, and this can be an error. James takes the Austrian causal-realist approach, which is the professors’ term for the base logic of Austrian Economics. “Realist” means seeing the world as it really is, rather than how you would like it to be. Law firms need clients and they are not just going to walk through the door. James’s target customers are unaware of the availability of the services that can help them. Therefore advertising is required. “Causal” means understanding what works to solve the problem at hand. In this case, James built up a database of “what works and what doesn’t” to bring clients to the firm, and advertising — specifically TV advertising — proved to be the right tool, as measured by revenue realized minus costs expended.

Understand and employ the concept of opportunity cost: Resource allocation and spending decisions are always trade-offs and the best tool to make them definitively is to apply the concept of opportunity cost. If I allocate resource X (e.g. an advertising budget), what is the next best resource I am choosing not to allocate (e.g. hiring an additional staff member)? Is that the best use of resources? Which one will serve the client best? Which one will deliver most revenue for the firm? The point is to do the analysis carefully and honestly, so that you can be confident in the decision.

Understand the value (and cost) of time: Austrian Economics focuses quite specifically on the time it takes to produce, and the cost to the entrepreneur of this production timeline. Costs are incurred while no revenue comes in. James methodically addressed this cash flow challenge, and has become adept at identifying cases that can be expected to settle faster, and he will select for that attribute even if the end-revenue is smaller. “The prospect of getting paid two years out is less risky than getting paid four years out.”

Take active steps to manage and reduce uncertainty: We always highlight the role of uncertainty about the future as an important component of entrepreneurial action. James has found ways to narrow uncertainty. One example is to take only cases where the responsibility is clear, and so the uncertainty is limited to the settlement. That is less uncertain than being unsure whether you will win or lose the case. Another uncertainty-narrowing action is to keep a sufficient cash reserve so that fluctuations in cash flow will not impair ongoing business processes. This makes possible the avoidance of debt obligations, which are always troublesome for a professional services business.


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31. Per Bylund on Big Data vs. Big Ideas

Wouldn’t it be nice to predict the future? It’s tempting to reach for the analytical tools and big data sets that are newly available and for which big claims are made regarding their predictive capabilities. For entrepreneurs, small businesses and corporate innovation teams, rich qualitative data are far more relevant and collecting these data is far more productive. By this we mean talking to customers and potential customers, observing behaviors rather than collecting clickstream data, and immersing yourself in the unpredictable subjectivity of the consumer.

In this week’s Economics For Entrepreneurs podcast, Dr. Per Bylund analyzes what big data can and can’t do for entrepreneurs and the innovation process, and explains how qualitative data can generate big ideas for the future.

Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

Predictive analytics can’t predict! That was Dr. Per Bylund’s provocative introduction to our discussion of the uses and drawbacks of big data in the context of the entrepreneurial mission.

The claims made on behalf of the analytical powers of big data may be exaggerated, and entrepreneurs should learn what they can and can not expect from the application of big data analytics to business. Otherwise there is the chance of both error and wasted spending on the tools of business intelligence. It’s important to distinguish between the different roles of multiple data types.

Big Data vs Big Ideas Chart

Click on the image to download the Big Data vs. Big Ideas PDF

Pattern recognition is not prediction. Dr Bylund contrasted what Big Data can and can’t do for entrepreneurs. He used an example of analytics predicting the outcomes of future NFL games. Here there are large sets of historical data on players, teams, plays and previous outcomes. There are limited potential outcomes (e.g. one team will win the game – there is no third team that will unexpectedly turn up to change the range of possible outcomes). The predictive analytics got the outcome right about 75% of the time. In a world of more open-ended results (e.g. predicting the outcome of a multi-team tournament), big data could be expected to be right fewer times. There is danger in over-reliance on the law of large numbers and tendencies like reversion to the mean. Pattern recognition from historical data sets (which is what big data does well) is not prediction.

In fact, in the world of economics and entrepreneurship, there is no prediction. Entrepreneurs deal with social phenomena that emerge from individuals’ actions and interactions, across billions and trillions of instances. Entrepreneurial outcomes depend on how people act, and how they act depends on their feelings, how they see the world (subjectivism) and what they feel like doing. We can’t know or predict that. There may be some general rules that apply in many cases (for example, raising prices rapidly and significantly in a competitive market will, all other things being equal, result in a reduced unit volume of sales). But those rules don’t predict the decisions of specific individuals in specific cases.

Mainstream economists and central planners long for a mechanistic world: turn a dial, get a result. But this approach is not valid. In the economy or any market, all variables are dependent on all other variables. Everything affects everything. The consequences of any action – like central bank interest rate tinkering – affect different people in different ways, and whoever is affected first or last will experience different consequences and react in different ways.

The core of the issue is that human behavior is unpredictable. Subjective choices can’t be predicted.

Prediction implies precision, and that’s not available.

Yet the entrepreneur must deal with the future. The entrepreneur seeks to produce a good or a service that consumers will consider valuable at some point in the future. Even if they tell you today that they will value your offering in the future, they may change their minds.

Is there any contribution that big data can make, any help that it can offer? We discussed these areas:

  • It’s hard to know what people might want in the future. But it might be possible to identify what specific people will not want, based on their past behaviors. Data can show you which purchases cluster together, and which don’t. Beef purchasers may also buy red wine. Vegans won’t buy beef. Facebook and other ad targeting tools (which use big data effectively) can help you avoid marketing beef to vegans or pasta to keto diet followers.
  • Data can sometimes detect dissatisfactions, which are the universal raw material for entrepreneurs.  Analysis of sentiments expressed in reviews can guide you in the right direction. Writing a negative review on Yelp or Trip Advisor is both a behavior and an expression of sentiment and data analytics can detect patterns here. But Dr.Bylund advises us that it can only provide a guide – there is no substitute for talking directly to consumers, human to human.
  • Data can help with segmentation. If you want to better understand a geographical market segment or a demographic segment or a behavioral segment, there are lots of data that can detect the differences between segments, and this can help you with targeting of communications (but not necessarily with the message).
  • Quantitative data can be combined with qualitative data to sharpen insights. Dr. Smita Bakshi, in our episode #24 described how analysis of student performance data (50% of computer science students don’t complete their first-year course) combined with personal discussions with students in class, delivered an empathic understanding of their struggles, from which her team developed a winning interactive learning tool for computer programming languages.

Sometimes an entrepreneur can skip the big data analytics, but never the empathic diagnosis. Entrepreneurship consists of understanding the mind of the consumer and understanding the economics of the marketplace. Where the market is heading and what will be in consumers’ minds in the future are more the realm of judgement than analytics.

Entrepreneurs behave differently than dig data-driven large corporates. They think harder about the customer, they study human motivation, they utilize the rich qualitative data that comes from talking to customers, and they concentrate their capital and resources on developing and extrapolating their customer understanding. They uncover subjective value – the value that only exists in the mind of the consumer. Imagination is the key to the future. Entrepreneurs try to succeed in bringing about that imagined future. Big data might help them avoid mistakes, but it’s impossible to rely on the past to produce the future.


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30. Trini Amador on Brand Building

In Austrian Capital Theory, Brands are valuable financial assets. Brands are architected in response to the subjective value preferences of consumers, and the more accurate the responsiveness, the higher, faster, longer and more reliable are the future cash flows. Brands are promises of value and, when the promise is kept, the result is delighted, enthusiastic and loyal consumers.

In the current episode of the E4E podcast, global branding expert Trini Amador explains how every business and every entrepreneur can methodically build a strong brand to deliver consumer value and unleash cash flow.


Key Takeaways and Actionable Insights

The entrepreneur makes a promise that the consumer will experience value. The brand is the promise. Here are the principles for building a strong brand.

There are two pillars to the construction: Relevance and Differentiation.

Brand Uniqueness Blueprint

Click To Download The Brand Uniqueness Blueprint PDF

Pillar 1: Relevance. It’s central to economics because economics deals with individuals and their preferences and their choices. Your brand is not for everyone, it’s for specific individuals. It’s important to know them and understand them deeply.

Relevance Box 1: Core Target

Many brand owners think that the more customers they target, the more they will sell. The opposite is true. Define your target audience as narrowly as possible.

Relevance Box 2: Core Needs and Insights

Strong brands are built on unique entrepreneurial insights into the motivations of their core target audience. Entrepreneurs use the deductive method: observing behavior and deducing motivations from those observations, using tools like the Means-End Chain.

Relevance Box 3: Customer’s Frame Of Reference

This component is based on the Austrian value principle that the customer finds value in meeting a need in a way that is better (for them) than direct substitutes, indirect substitutes, or than non-purchase or deferred purchase.

Pillar 2: Differentiation

In Pillar two, we build an implementation of the Austrian principle of uniqueness in your entrepreneurial offering. A brand is the ideal platform for communicating uniqueness.

Differentiation Box 1: Brand Promise

The brand promise is to deliver in a unique way the highest possible level of benefit, which is an emotional benefit, the consumer feeling that your offering assures they will achieve their highest fulfillment.

Differentiation Box 2: Brand Delivery.

Brand delivery is how the brand keeps the promise it makes.

Differentiation Box 3: Brand Character

Customers are people and they relate to brands subjectively – almost as if the brand were a person.

Building the 6-Box Brand Foundation brings clarity about what your brand stands for, defines your competitive advantage, and ensures that your entire team knows what they must deliver, and what the customer expects.

Download the set of free resources here to help you implement your own brand-building process.


PDF icon Download Our Brand Uniqueness Blueprint PDF (129 KB)


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